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Systemic Hypertension: Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment

Systemic Hypertension

What is Systemic Hypertension?

Systemic hypertension, or high blood pressure, is a common medical condition characterised by elevated blood pressure levels in the arteries. Blood pressure is a measurement of the force exerted by circulating blood against the walls of the arteries as the heart pumps it throughout the body.

In the case of systemic hypertension, the blood pressure consistently exceeds the normal range, which can put a strain on the cardiovascular system and increase the risk of various health complications. The condition is typically categorised into two types: primary hypertension or isolated systemic hypertension and secondary hypertension.

Symptoms of Systemic Hypertension

In case you are wondering ‘What systemic hypertension symptoms’ are, you are not alone. These are some of the most common symptoms associated with the condition: 

  • Headaches: Persistent or recurrent headaches, particularly at the back of the head, may occur in individuals with high blood pressure. However, headaches alone are not sufficient to diagnose hypertension.
  • Shortness of breath: Difficulty breathing or experiencing shortness of breath without any apparent cause may be associated with high blood pressure. This symptom may occur during physical activity or even at rest.
  • Nosebleeds: While nosebleeds can have various causes, some individuals with hypertension may experience frequent or unexplained nosebleeds. Nosebleeds by themselves are not indicative of high blood pressure and can occur for other reasons as well.
  • Dizziness: Feeling lightheaded, dizzy, or faint can occasionally be associated with high blood pressure. However, dizziness can also be caused by other factors, such as low blood sugar or inner ear problems.
  • Flushing or facial redness: Some individuals with high blood pressure may notice facial flushing or redness, particularly in the cheeks. This symptom is not specific to hypertension and can be caused by other factors as well.

Causes of Systemic Hypertension

The causes of systemic hypertension, also known as high blood pressure, can vary and are often multifactorial. While the exact cause may not always be identifiable, several factors and underlying conditions contribute to the development of systemic hypertension. 

  • Age: Your risk of developing hypertension increases as you get older.
  • Family history: If you have a family history of hypertension, you are more likely to develop it yourself.
  • Gender: Men are more likely to develop hypertension than women before menopause. After menopause, women are at an equal risk of developing hypertension as men.
  • Unhealthy Lifestyle:  Certain lifestyle choices can contribute to the development of hypertension and are often associated with pre-hypertension and high cholesterol levels. These include a diet high in sodium (salt), low in potassium, or lacking in fruits and vegetables.
  • Obesity: Being overweight or obese is a major risk factor for systemic hypertension.
  • Physical inactivity: People who are physically inactive are more likely to develop hypertension than those who are active.
  • Smoking: Smoking damages the arteries and increases your risk of hypertension.
  • Excessive alcohol consumption: Drinking too much alcohol can raise your blood pressure.
  • Certain medications: Some medications, such as steroids and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), can raise your blood pressure.
  • Kidney disease: Kidney disease can damage the arteries and lead to hypertension.
  • Thyroid problems: Thyroid diseases, such as hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism, can raise your blood pressure.

Treatment for Systemic Hypertension

Treatment for systemic hypertension aims to lower blood pressure to a safe level, reducing the risk of heart disease, stroke, and other health issues. It typically involves a combination of medication and lifestyle changes. Here is a structured version of the information:

  • Medication:There are various medications available to treat hypertension. Your doctor will work closely with you to determine the most suitable medication or combination of medications for your specific condition. These medications may include:
    • Diuretics: Also known as water pills, diuretics help your body eliminate excess sodium and fluid, thereby reducing blood volume and lowering blood pressure.
    • Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors: These medications relax and widen your blood vessels, making it easier for blood to flow through them.
    • Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs): Similar to ACE inhibitors, ARBs relax blood vessels and block the actions of angiotensin II, a hormone that narrows blood vessels.
    • Calcium channel blockers: These medications prevent calcium from entering the cells of your heart and blood vessels, helping to relax and widen them.
    • Beta-blockers: Beta-blockers reduce the workload on your heart by slowing down the heart rate and reducing the force of contraction.
    • Other medications: In certain cases, additional medications such as alpha-blockers, central agonists, or vasodilators may be prescribed.
  • Lifestyle Changes:In addition to medication, making certain lifestyle modifications can significantly contribute to blood pressure control. These changes include:
    • Weight Management: If you are overweight or obese, losing weight can help lower blood pressure. Even losing a small amount of weight can have a positive impact.
    • Healthy Diet: Following a balanced and nutritious diet, such as the DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension) diet, which emphasises fruits, vegetables, whole grains, lean proteins, and low-fat dairy products, can help lower blood pressure.
    • Regular Exercise: Engaging in regular physical activity, such as brisk walking, swimming, cycling, or any other aerobic exercise, for at least 150 minutes per week can help lower blood pressure.
    • Smoking Cessation: Quitting smoking is essential, as tobacco and nicotine can raise blood pressure and damage blood vessels, increasing the risk of heart disease.
    • Limiting Alcohol: Drinking alcohol in moderation or avoiding it altogether can help manage blood pressure. Excessive alcohol consumption can raise blood pressure and may interfere with the effectiveness of certain blood pressure medications.
    • Adequate Sleep: Getting enough quality sleep is important for overall health, including blood pressure control. Aim for 7-8 hours of sleep per night.

In a Nutshell

Managing systemic hypertension is crucial for maintaining good health and reducing the risk of complications such as heart disease and stroke. By working closely with your healthcare provider, you can develop an effective treatment plan that is a combination of both medication and lifestyle changes.

To further assist you in your journey toward controlling your blood pressure, you can visit our Find a Physician page and find a physician who specialises in hypertension management. 

Don’t wait to take control of your blood pressure. Take the next step in your healthcare journey by connecting with a qualified healthcare provider who can help you manage your systemic hypertension effectively. Your well-being is important, and with the right support, you can achieve optimal blood pressure control and lead a healthier life.


1. What are other names for systemic hypertension?

Systemic hypertension is commonly known as high blood pressure or arterial hypertension.

2. What is the difference between systemic hypertension and other hypertension?

Systemic hypertension refers to high blood pressure that affects the entire circulatory system. Other types of hypertension, such as pulmonary hypertension, refer to high blood pressure specifically in the lungs. The underlying causes and management strategies vary between different types of hypertension.

3. What does systemic hypertension affect?

Systemic hypertension affects the blood vessels throughout the body, including the arteries that carry oxygen-rich blood from the heart to the rest of the organs and tissues. Prolonged elevated blood pressure can lead to damage in the blood vessels, heart, kidneys, brain, and other organs.

4. How is systemic hypertension diagnosed?

Systemic hypertension is typically diagnosed through blood pressure measurements. Your doctor will use a blood pressure cuff and a stethoscope or an electronic device to measure the pressure in your arteries. The diagnosis is made based on multiple blood pressure readings taken at different times.

5. Can systemic hypertension reverse?

While systemic hypertension cannot be completely reversed, it can be effectively managed and controlled through lifestyle changes and appropriate medical interventions.

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